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Apakah itu PSEUDOSCIENCE?

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Apakah itu PSEUDOSCIENCE? Empty Apakah itu PSEUDOSCIENCE?

Post by admin on Mon 16 Apr 2012, 3:19 pm

PSEUDOSCIENCE - Definisi, Daftar Singkat dan Synonym2-nya

Apakah itu PSEUDOSCIENCE?

Menurut Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudoscience

definisi Pseudoscience adalah:

Setiap pengetahuan yang MENGAKU (apakah juga DI-AKUI, itu adalah
soal yang lain sama sekali) dirinya sendiri sebagai pengetahuan yang
faktuil, ilmiah, atau bahkan yang mengaku mencapai kesadaran, atau
IMAN, yang lebih tinggi (misalnya mistik, ilmu klenik, kesadaran
transendental-nya Mahareshi Mahesh Yogi, Hare Krishna dlsbnya),
tetapi TIDAK MAMPU memenuhi syarat2 ilmiah seperti:
(a) bisa diulang (setiap saat, disetiap tempat dan oleh setiap
orang), seperti misalnya mutasi oleh sinar kosmis, seleksi alamiah
berdasarkan pertukaran & kombinasi gene dan DNA, misalnya hukum
Mendel yang paling mutakhir diformulasikan dalam bentuk genetic code
algorithm;
(b) konsisten dengan hasil2 ilmu pengetahuan yang telah diakui dunia
(established) dan hasil2 eksperimen2 yang ilmiah, seperti yang
dewasa ini sedang rame2nay dilaksanakan di laboratorium2
mikrobiologi di USA, yang hasil2nya bisa dibaca di RATUSAN majalah2
ilmiah;
(c) bisa dibuktikan secara eksperimental (setiap saat, disetiap
tempat dan oleh setiap orang), seperti misalnya seleksi alamiah
(natural selection) berdasarkan pertukaran & kombinasi gene dan DNA,
yang bisa diverifikasi dilaboratorium biologi dan biochemistry dan
sekarang ini lagi mengalami BOOM terutama di USA, misalnya
verifikasi hukum klasik Mendel yang paling mutahkir diformulasikan
dalam bentuk genetic code algorithm.

Saya persilahkan para peminat membaca sendiri analisa yang lebih
detail dalam artikel website yang saya kutip dibawah ini.

Apa2 sajakah yang tergolong PSEUDOSCIENCE?
Menurut Wikipedia, yang tergolong PSEUDOSCIENCE dewasa ini antara
lain adalah:

1. Astrologi (anda juga baca setiap hari, bukan?)
2. KREASIONISME (seperti a.l. Dr. Morris, Dr. Gish dan Ir.
Stanley SETHIADI)
3. Ilmu Ramal/Nujum (seperti a.l. Dukun2, ahli Guna2 dan ilmu
Ghaib di Indonesia)
4. Hydrino theory (seperti Dr. Randell Mills dari Blacklight
Power, Inc., USA)
5. Social Darwinism (seperti Dr. Iskandar Alisyahbana dari
Indonesia, dipromosi oleh Ir. Sethiadi)
6. Meditasi atau Kesadaran Transenden (seperti Mahareshi Mahesh
Yogi, Hari Krisna, dll.)

Para peminat silahkan periksa daftar asli yang dikutip dari
Wikipedia dibawah ini.

Apakah SYNONYM daripada PSEUDOSCIENCE?
Menurut Wikipedia, Pseudoscience bisa juga disebut antara lain
sebagai:
- Protoscience = Ilmu Purbakala atau Ilmu Primitif
- JUNK SCIENCE = Ilmu SAMPAH
- Pathological Science = ilmunya orang2 yang SAKIT JIWA

Saya bukannya memfitnah atau menghujat atau tidak sopan. Yang tidak
setuju silahkan periksa artikel asli dari Wikipedia yg dikutip
dibawah ini. Protes2 harap dialamatkan jangan kepada saya, tetapi
kepada Wikipadia.

------------------------------------
Excerpts from Wikipaedia:
Pseudoscience
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudoscience

A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purporting to be either
both factual and scientific, or of an even higher standard of
knowledge, but which fails to comply with the usual scientific tests
of repeatability, consistency with existing well-established science
and experimental result, experimental accessibility, etc.
Pseudoscience is distinguishable from protoscience by reviewing its
use of the scientific method. Protoscience may be defined as
speculation or hypothesis which has not had time to be tested
adequately by the scientific method. The testing of pseudoscience is
characteristically wanting, occasionally untestable, and frequently
unresponsive to accepted means; accordingly, scientific methods
often fail to disprove pseudoscientific hypotheses (particularly
untestable claims).
The boundaries between pseudoscience, protoscience, and "real"
science are often unclear. Many people have tried to offer objective
criteria for the term, with mixed success. Oftentimes the term is
used simply as a pejorative to express the speaker's low opinion of
a given field, regardless of any objective measures.
If the claims of a given field can be tested it may be real science,
however odd or astonishing. If they cannot be tested by any means
imaginable it is likely pseudoscience. If the claims made are
inconsistent with experimental results or established theory, it is
often presumed to be pseudoscience.
In other circumstances it may be difficult to distinguish which of
two opposing "sciences" are valid; for example, both the proponents
and opponents of the Kyoto Protocol on global warming have recruited
the help of scientists to endorse contradictory political goals.
This enlistment of science in the service of politics is sometimes
called "junk science".
Such fields as acupuncture and lucid dreaming may be categorized as
protosciences; there is a reasonable expectation that when they are
experimentally examined, the results may be such as to qualify them
as science.
Typically, pseudoscience fails to meet the criteria laid down by the
scientific method in one or more of the following rules of thumb:
• by asserting claims without supporting experimental
evidence,
• by asserting claims which contradict experimentally
established results,
• by failing to provide an experimental possiblity of
reproducible results, or
• by violating Occam's Razor (the principle of choosing the
simplest explanation when multiple viable explanations are possible)
Pseudoscience is distinguished from Revelation, Theology or
Spirituality in that it claims to offer insight into the physical
world by 'scientific' means (i.e., means in accordance with the
scientific method). Systems of thought that rely upon "divine"
or "inspired" knowledge are not considered pseudoscience if they do
not claim to be scientific.
Motivations for the advocacy or promotion of pseudoscience range
from simple naivety about the nature of science or the scientific
method, to deliberate deception for financial or other benefit.

Examples of fields of study to which the pejorative label
pseudoscience is often applied
Examples of fields of knowledge that many consider to varying
extents to be pseudoscientific include (alphabetically):
• acupuncture
• Applied kinesiology
• Astrology
• biorhythm
• cartomancy
• catastrophism
• channeling
• chiropractic
• chiromancy
• cold nuclear fusion (CNF)
• creationism
• cryptozoology
• dowsing
• fortune telling
• geomancy
• homeopathy
• hydrino theory
• Intelligent Design theory
• Kirlian photography
• magnet therapy
• numerology
• orgone energy
• parapsychology
• perpetual motion machines
• photoreading
• phrenology
• psychic phenomena
• Reciprocal System of Theory
• Social Darwinism
• stress studies
• Transcendental Meditation
Pseudoscientific medical practices are often quite popular, in part
because they often work, possibly due to the placebo effect. Many
pseudosciences are associated with the New Age movement and there is
a tendency to improperly associate all practices of the "New Age"
with pseudoscience.
There are also young fields of science that are sometimes frowned
upon by scientists from established fields, primarily because they
are speculative in nature:
• exobiology / astrobiology
• Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)
• Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence (CETI)
These fields are not considered pseudoscientific or protoscientific
by most scientists, though, and they are studied at many
universities and specialized institutes. SETI and CETI advocates do
generally not claim that extraterrestrials exist, although most
consider the possibility likely (see Drake equation). There is
controversy in biology about whether evidence of extraterrestrial
microbial life has been found (fossilized in meteorites and as part
of the Viking program's exobiology experiments).
Certain "watchdog" groups, such as CSICOP, have released statements
expressing concern about the apparent growing popularity of
pseudoscience, especially when it applies to scientific fields that
are intended to save people's lives. A number of self-proclaimed
alternative medicine treatments have been designated pseudoscience
by critics, largely because some of these methods inspire false hope
in terminally ill patients, and end up costing large amounts of
money without actually providing any real benefit, treatment, or
cure for various ailments.
Non-pseudoscience nonsense
There is a subset of what is often called pseudoscience which
differs from what has been here termed pseudoscience. Most of these
are mathematically based, and the problems are often phrased with
tempting simplicity. They often live in a closed system of
assumptions and premises, and depend on a faulty interpretation of
the rules of that system. While pseudosciences have merely failed to
prove themselves true, these undertakings can be proven impossible.
The ancient geometric problems of trisecting an angle using only
straightedge and compass, and of drawing a square with the same area
as a given circle (or "squaring the circle") are examples of this
kind of problem. Inventions purporting to illustrate perpetual
motion also fall into this group. The latter appears with such
frequency that the U. S. Patent Office has a policy not to consider
patent applications of this sort.
Because its success does not depend on empirical evidence from
the "real" world, some scientists do not consider mathematics to be
a science. In that context a violation of the rules of mathematics
cannot be pseudoscience.
See also: Junk science, Quackery, Protoscience, New Age, Sokal
Affair, Pathological science, Cargo cult science

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